市面上流传的GRE阅读机经真题有三百多篇,同时又存在多种版本的答案和解析,有些疑难题目让考生不知道听谁的,还有些版本的解析像是用谷歌翻译把同题目和选项翻译了一下。TD GRE教研组认为,GRE阅读的解析,可以像“真题捕手”小程序上现有的SAT真题解析一样,讲得再清楚一点。

有感于此,我们尝试用比较长的时间,原创一个解析,力求做到超详细,大白话,包你懂。之前为大家推送了Passage 1、2、3的解析,今天继续为大家推出Passage 4的解析,这篇阅读一共有8句话,带3道题,TD版超详细「包你懂」系列对此篇文章进行了清楚地解析。

往期GRE阅读真题详细解析👉:GRE阅读Passage 解析

Passage 4

African American drama has, until recently, been rooted in the mimetic tradition of modern American naturalism. The most distinctive attribute of this tradition is the mechanistic, materialistic conception of humanity. Naturalism sees each individual as inextricably bound to the environment and depicts each person as someone controlled by, instead of controlling, concrete reality. As long as African American drama maintained naturalism as its dominant mode, it could only express the “plight of African American people”. Its heroes might declare the madness of reality, but reality inevitably triumphed over them.

The surrealistic plays of Adrienne Kennedy mark one of the first departures from naturalism by an African American dramatist. The overall goal of her work has been to depict the world of the soul and the spirit, not to mirror concrete reality. Within this framework, Kennedy has been able to portray African American minds and souls liberated from their connections to the external environment.

文章解析

第一句话:

African American drama has, until recently, been rooted in the mimetic tradition of modern American naturalism.

白话版讲解:

一直以来,非洲裔美国人(写的)戏剧一直都根植于现代美国自然主义文学和戏剧流派的那种模拟现实的传统。直到最近,这种情况才有所改变(until recently)。非洲裔美国戏剧的根,一直都在自然主义那里,就是说一直只敢写实,不敢写非现实。

mimesis n. (文学艺术中)模拟真实
representation or imitation of the real world in art and literature

备注:文中mimetic就是mimesis的形容词形式。

第二句话:

The most distinctive attribute of this tradition is the mechanistic, materialistic conception of humanity.

白话版讲解:

这一(文学和戏剧)传统的最显著特征,就是对人性抱有一种机械论的、现实主义的观念。

mechanism n.(哲)机械论,认为所有自然现象,包括生命和思想,都可以用物理学和化学去解释(即人的生命也是一种物理和化学现象),认为人没有自由意志。
the doctrine that all natural phenomena, including life and thought, allow mechanical explanation by physics and chemistry

conception n. 观念;抽象概念
a general notion; an abstract idea

第三句话:

Naturalism sees each individual as inextricably bound to the environment and depicts each person as someone controlled by, instead of controlling, concrete reality.

白话版讲解:

自然主义这个文学和戏剧流派认为每个人都一定会受到环境的束缚,这一流派的作品把每个人都描写成被具体存在的现实所控制的人,而非能控制现实的人。

concrete adj. 具体存在的;非抽象的
existing in a material or physical form;not abstract

第四句话:

As long as African American drama maintained naturalism as its dominant mode, it could only express the “plight of African American people”.

白话版讲解:

只要非洲裔美国戏剧仍然坚持把自然主义当主要模式,就只能写“非洲裔美国人的困境”。

第五句话:

Its heroes might declare the madness of reality, but reality inevitably triumphed over them.

白话版讲解:

在这种模式下的剧情安排,戏剧中的人物尽管可以宣告现实是愚蠢和疯狂的,但是最后还是不可避免地会被现实击败。

第六句话:

The surrealistic plays of Adrienne Kennedy mark one of the first departures from naturalism by an African American dramatist.

白话版讲解:

之前的黑人剧作家一直都是老一套,都只敢写现实主义的戏剧。终于出了一个叫Adrienne Kennedy的剧作家,她写了一些超现实主义的戏剧。这标志着首次有黑人剧作家偏离自然主义。

mark vt.标志着;是……的特征

例句:The signing of the treaty marked a major milestone on the road to European union.
该条约的签署是欧洲一体化进程中的一个重要里程碑。

第七句话:

The overall goal of her work has been to depict the world of the soul and the spirit, not to mirror concrete reality.

白话版讲解:

她的剧作的总目标是描绘灵魂和心灵的世界,而不是(像以前那些黑人剧作家一样)只反映具体存在的现实。

第八句话:

Within this framework, Kennedy has been able to portray African American minds and souls liberated from their connections to the external environment.

白话版讲解:

在这一(超现实主义的)框架下,Kennedy得以描写美国黑人从外部环境(的束缚)中解放出来的思维和灵魂。

题目解析

1.Which of the following best states the central idea of the passage?

A.African American drama has been primarily influenced by naturalisms emphasis on the materialistic.

B.African American drama has traditionally acknowledged the relationship between the individual and the environment.

C.African American drama, traditionally naturalistic, has been little influenced by dramatist Kennedy’s spiritual and psychological approach to drama.

D.The work of Kennedy suggests a shift away from a commitment to strict naturalism in African American drama.

E.The work of Kennedy best exemplifies the current interest of African American artists in the spiritual and psychological worlds.

白话版讲解:

题目问全文的中心意思是什么?

全文的中心意思就是以前的黑人剧作家都只敢写现实主义剧作(第一句话到第五句话),最近出了一个Kennedy,敢写超现实主义剧作了(第六句话)。所以选D。

2. According to the passage, Kennedy is concerned with depicting the

A.internal rather than the external life of her characters.

B.madness of reality rather than the effects of reality.

C.effects of materialism on African American minds and souls.

D.relationship between naturalism and the human spirit.

E.effects that her characters have on the environment.

白话版讲解:

题目问根据文章,Kennedy关心描绘什么?

根据文章第七句话和第八句话,Kennedy描绘的是the soul and the spirit 和minds and souls,也就是人物的内在生活。所以选A

3. Which of the following statements, if true, would most strengthen the author’s assertion that Kennedy’s work marks a serious departure from the tradition described in the first paragraph?

A.Kennedy places the action in a real-life setting that is nevertheless unfamiliar to the average viewer or reader.

B.Kennedy movingly portrays the lives and struggles of prominent African Americans in the United States.

C.Kennedy uses characters found only in ancient African legends and mythology.

D.Kennedy provides insights into American mimetic tradition and dramatic convention.

E.Kennedy depicts the events in a style reminiscent of a television documentary.

白话版讲解:

题目问下列哪一个情况,如果为真,就最能加强作者在第一段给出的“Kennedy的剧作标志着真的有黑人剧作家偏离自然主义”这样一个断言?

根据文章,Kennedy的书至少要像《聊斋》、《西游记》,反正不能像《红楼梦》一样。所以我们应该找涉及非写实,涉及幻想、怪力乱神的选项。只有C选项中的legends和mythology是非写实的,其他选项还是跟现实有关,所以选C

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