市面上流传的GRE阅读机经真题有三百多篇,同时又存在多种版本的答案和解析,有些疑难题目让考生不知道听谁的,还有些版本的解析像是用谷歌翻译把同题目和选项翻译了一下。TD GRE教研组认为,GRE阅读的解析,可以讲得再清楚一点。

GRE不光有技巧,不光有快速解题法,GRE更加考察大家的逻辑硬实力,文字理解实打实的深度。良好的GRE备考应当在课堂上向老师学习快速解题法,取同取反逻辑的同时,课下扎扎实实的读懂每一句话。读懂,是一切技巧使用的前提。皮之不存,毛将焉附?

有感于此,我们尝试用比较长的时间,原创一个解析,力求做到超详细,大白话,包你懂往期GRE阅读真题详细解析👉:GRE阅读Passage 解析,今天继续为大家推出GRE Passage 51解析,TD版超详细「包你懂」系列对此篇文章进行了清楚地解析。

GRE真题阅读机经Passage 51

The relevance of the literary personality—a writer’s distinctive attitudes, concerns, and artistic choices—to the analysis of a literary work is being scrutinized by various schools of contemporary criticism. Deconstructionists view the literary personality, like the writer’s biographical personality, as irrelevant. The proper focus of literary analysis, they argue, is a work’s intertextuality (interrelationship with other texts), subtexts (unspoken, concealed, or repressed discourses), and metatexts (self-referential aspects), not a perception of a writer’s verbal and aesthetic “fingerprints.” New historicists also devalue the literary personality, since, in their emphasis on a work’s historical contexts, they credit a writer with only those insights and ideas that were generally available when the writer lived. However, to readers interested in literary detective work—say scholars of classical (Greek and Roman) literature who wish to reconstruct damaged texts or deduce a work’s authorship—the literary personality sometimes provides vital clues.

文章解析

第一部分:

The relevance of the literary personality—a writer’s distinctive attitudes, concerns, and artistic choices—to the analysis of a literary work is being scrutinized by various schools of contemporary criticism.

白话版讲解:

文学人格指文学作品作者的一些独特的观点、关切、艺术选择。我们在分析一部文学作品时,要不要考虑文学人格因素?对于这个问题,当代的各个文学批评流派正仔细考虑。

第二部分:

Deconstructionists view the literary personality, like the writer’s biographical personality, as irrelevant. The proper focus of literary analysis, they argue, is a work’s intertextuality (interrelationship with other texts), subtexts (unspoken, concealed, or repressed discourses), and metatexts (self-referential aspects), not a perception of a writer’s verbal and aesthetic “fingerprints.”

白话版讲解:

有一个文学批评流派,叫解构主义派。这个流派认为看文学作品就应该看文学作品本身,作者的观点就像作者的经历一样,是跟文学作品不相干的事情,读文学作品的时候,不要去管作者有什么观点,不要去管作者有什么人生经历,评价鸡蛋的时候,只看鸡蛋好不好,不要去管鸡。分析文学作品,应该聚焦于作品本身,聚焦于文本和其他作品文本的互文、文本潜藏的含义和提到、谈论文本的文本(metatext),而不是去研究作品的作者,去研究作者特别喜欢用哪个词、有什么特有的美学偏好。(就是认为作品很重要,作者不重要。研究作品,不要去研究作者)

第三部分:

New historicists also devalue the literary personality, since, in their emphasis on a work’s historical contexts, they credit a writer with only those insights and ideas that were generally available when the writer lived.

白话版讲解:

还有一个文学批评流派,叫新历史主义派。这个派跟解构主义派又不一样,这个派强调的不是作品本身,而是作品产生的历史背景历史环境。但反正新历史主义派也是贬低作者个人的作用的,也认为看作品时不要去看作者。这个派倒不像结构主义派那样认为作者是跟作品毫不相干,他们认为分析文学作品时可以考虑一些作者的观点。但他们只肯承认作者在其生活年代通常可能具备的洞见和思想是作者的;对于作者在其生活年代通常不大可能具备的有些洞见和思想,新历史主义派一般就认为不是作者的洞见和思想。即他们主张,有些观点,不要强往作者头上去加。

第四部分:

However, to readers interested in literary detective work—say scholars of classical (Greek and Roman) literature who wish to reconstruct damaged texts or deduce a work’s authorship—the literary personality sometimes provides vital clues.

白话版讲解:

上面两个文学批评流派都是不重视作者的。不过呢,对于有些想当文学侦探的读者来说,“文学人格”有时候还是能够给他们的工作提供一些至关重要的线索的。什么叫想当文学侦探的读者呢?比如有些研究古典文学(古希腊和古罗马文学)的学者,这些人想把某些古典文学作品现存的残本拼完整,或者想推理出一本不知道作者是谁的作品的作者到底是谁。(为什么文学人格在这方面有用?举个例子,假如我们已知《三国演义》是罗贯中写的,《残唐五代史演义》不知道是谁写的。怎么办呢,分析《三国演义》的文本,分析其文学人格,看其用词习惯、审美情趣,然后看《残唐五代史演义》的文本表现出来的用词习惯、审美情趣是不是跟《三国演义》的文本一样,就可以推测《残唐五代史演义》是不是也是罗贯中写的。再比如假如我们已知《水浒》是施耐庵写的,但是不知道《红楼梦》是谁写的,我们发现《水浒》的文本透露出其作者是非常蔑视女性的,而《红楼梦》的文本透露出其作者是尊重女性的,就可以推测《红楼梦》肯定不是施耐庵写的)

题目解析

1. The passage is primarily concerned with

A. discussing attitudes toward a particular focus for literary analysis

B. describing the limitations of two contemporary approaches to literary analysis

C. pointing out the similarities among seemingly contrasting approaches to literary analysis

D. defending the resurgence of a particular focus for literary analysis

E. defining a set of related terms employed in literary criticism

白话版讲解:

实际问全文修辞功能。

文章主要介绍了不同流派对“在分析文学作品时,是不是应该聚焦于文学人格”这个问题的不同观点。所以选项A正确

For the following question, consider each of the choice separately and select all that apply.
2. It can be inferred from the passage that on the issue of how to analyze a literary work, the new historicists would most likely agree with the deconstructionists that

A. The writer’s insights and ideas should be understood in terms of the writer’s historical context.

B. The writer’s literary personality has little or no relevance.

C. The critic should primarily focus on intertextuality, subtexts and metatexts.

白话版讲解:

问根据文章可以推断,关于怎样分析一部文学作品这个问题,新历史主义派评论家可能会同意解构主义派的下列哪一个观点?

A选项是新历史主义派同意,但是解构主义派不同意,所以A选项错误。

根据文章第二句话和第四句话,B选项正确。

C选项是解构主义派的观点,但是新历史主义派不同意,所以C选项错误。

本题答案:B

3. In the context in which it appears, “credit a writer with” most nearly means

A. trust a writer with.

B. applaud a writer for.

C. believe a writer created.

D. presume a writer had.

E. accept a writer for.

白话版讲解:

问文章中credit a writer with是什么意思?

credit with的第一个义项是“认为某(好)事是某人做的、某人具有某(好)品质”(to consider usually favorably as the source, agent, or performer of an action or the possessor of a trait)

例1:She credited him with an excellent sense of humor.她认为他有很好的幽默感。
例2:He is credited with painting one hundred and twenty-five canvases.他被认为画了125幅油画。

文章中是说新历史主义派评论家认为a writer具有某些insights。即他们认为哪些insights是某个作家的,哪些insights不是;不是该作家的insights的,就不要硬说是他的。

有些同学想选B选项,但B选项中的applaud的意思是“对某人或某行为表示强烈赞同;赞扬” (show strong approval of a person or action; praise)。文章中并没有表示强烈赞同的意思。所以B选项错误。

本题答案:D

TD福利 & 领取方式

TD教研组除了为大家准备了GRE阅读真题外,还准备了GRE其他考试备考资料,清单如下,进群免费下载:

GRE备考资料,GRE真题资料

 扫码下方二维码,添加马甲微信,发送暗号「 GRE干货」即可免费入群哦~

注:已经添加马甲微信的同学就不用重复添加啦~

2020申请季,备考路上TD陪你一起前行