市面上流传的GRE阅读机经真题有三百多篇,同时又存在多种版本的答案和解析,有些疑难题目让考生不知道听谁的,还有些版本的解析像是用谷歌翻译把同题目和选项翻译了一下。TD GRE教研组认为,GRE阅读的解析,可以讲得再清楚一点。

GRE不光有技巧,不光有快速解题法,GRE更加考察大家的逻辑硬实力,文字理解实打实的深度。良好的GRE备考应当在课堂上向老师学习快速解题法,取同取反逻辑的同时,课下扎扎实实的读懂每一句话。读懂,是一切技巧使用的前提。皮之不存,毛将焉附?

有感于此,我们尝试用比较长的时间,原创一个解析,力求做到超详细,大白话,包你懂。之前为大家推送了👉Passage 1 – Passage 68的解析,今天继续为大家推出Passage 69(中阅读)解析,这篇阅读一共有1段,含3道题,TD版超详细「包你懂」系列对此篇文章进行了清楚地解析。

GRE阅读真题Passage 69

Historian Colin Calloway argues that in the late colonial period preceding the American Revolution (1775-1783), the British government sought to seal off territory west of the Appalachian Mountain from the encroachment of land-hungry White settlers, to negotiate with Native American peoples as independent foreign states, and to guarantee the integrity of traditional native American hunting grounds. By contrast, White Americans, released by the outbreak of the Revolution from the constraints of Britain’s allegedly benevolent policies, are portrayed by Calloway as ruthless land-grabbers whose new national government endorsed their rapacity. Bernard Bailyn argues, however, that the “Americans” who encroached on Native American land during the Revolution had been British only a few years before. When, during and after the Revolution, White Americans seized Native American land by any available means, they were continuing a tradition dating back to the earliest years of English settlement in North America. And, according to Bailyn, the British government’s prewar efforts to preserve the trans-Appalachian west for Native Americans resulted not from humanitarian virtue or ethnic tolerance but from British Merchants’ desire to maintain their lucrative trade with native Americans and the government’ s desire to control immigration and avoid costly conflict between White and Native Americans over land.

GRE阅读文章解析

第一句 :

Historian Colin Calloway argues that in the late colonial period preceding the American Revolution (1775-1783), the British government sought to seal off territory west of the Appalachian Mountain from the encroachment of land-hungry White settlers, to negotiate with Native American peoples as independent foreign states, and to guarantee the integrity of traditional native American hunting grounds.

白话版讲解:

历史学家 Colin Calloway 认为在美国独立战争(1775-1783)爆发之前的殖民时代后期 ,英国政府曾尝试封锁阿巴拉契亚山脉以西的领土,为了防止贪婪掠夺土地的白人定居者入侵这块区域。他们还曾尝试把印第安人看成是独立的国家,来和他们进行协商。另外,他们也还曾尝试保障印第安人传统的狩猎场的完整性。

这句话描述了历史学家 Colin Calloway 对英国政府的看法。从他的描述可以分析出,他对英国政府持肯定态度。

第二句 :

By contrast, White Americans, released by the outbreak of the Revolution from the constraints of Britain’s allegedly benevolent policies, are portrayed by Calloway as ruthless land-grabbers whose new national government endorsed their rapacity.

白话版讲解:

相反,美国白人被 Calloway 看成是无情的土地掠夺者,其掠夺行为受到新政府的支持。这些白人因为独立战争的爆发,而摆脱了英国政府仁慈政策的束缚。

这句话的 By contrast 提示了对比关系。从这句话可以判断出,Calloway 对美国白人持否定态度,这和 Calloway 对英国政府的肯定态度形成了对比。

第三句 :

Bernard Bailyn argues, however, that the “Americans” who encroached on Native American land during the Revolution had been British only a few years before.

白话版讲解:

但是,Bernard Bailyn 认为,这些在独立战争期间侵占印第安人土地的所谓的“美国人”在几年前其实还是英国人。

从这句话可以看出,Bernard Bailyn 并不同意 Calloway 的观点。Calloway 对英国政府持肯定态度,但 Bernard Bailyn 认为这些掠夺印第安人土地的美国白人其实就是英国人,只不过因为独立战争,美国独立成为了一个国家,所以他们“摇身一变”成为了美国人。在 Bernard Bailyn 看来,英国人也不是什么好人。

第四句 :

When, during and after the Revolution, White Americans seized Native American land by any available means, they were continuing a tradition dating back to the earliest years of English settlement in North America.

白话版讲解:

当美国白人在独立战争期间及之后用一切手段去侵占印第安人的土地的时候,他们是在延续着最早的时候英国定居者在美国的做法。

第五句 :

And, according to Bailyn, the British government’s prewar efforts to preserve the trans-Appalachian west for Native Americans resulted not from humanitarian virtue or ethnic tolerance but from British Merchants’ desire to maintain their lucrative trade with native Americans and the government’ s desire to control immigration and avoid costly conflict between White and Native Americans over land.

白话版讲解:

另外,Bailyn 认为,在战争爆发之前,英国政府并不是出于人道主义或者是包容多种族的原因,才努力为印第安人保留跨阿巴拉契亚区域西部的这块土地的,而是因为英国商人想要保留他们和印第安人之间贸易,两者之间的贸易让英国商人赚得满盆钵提。同时,英国政府也希望能够控制移民数量,并且避免美国白人和印第安人就土地问题产生代价高昂的冲突。

最后两句话详细地阐述了 Bailyn 的观点。他对英国人持否定态度,在他看来,英国政府为印第安人做的事情并不是因为他们道德高尚,而是因为他们想保住自己的利益。

GRE阅读题目解析

1. The primary purpose of the passage is to

A. su gge st that two different arguments about a particular historical period are both questio nable

B. present hist orical evidence that undermines a widely accepted viewpoints

C. defend a revi sionist historian’s thesis against traditionalist criticism

D. outline opposing interpretations of a particular historical phenomenon

E. resolve a dispute among historians over a controversial historical episode

白话版讲解:

第一题:这篇文章的主旨大意是什么?

这道题应该选 D。这篇文章描述了 Calloway 和 Bailyn 两位学者对某个历史事件的看法。两者的看法是相对立的。

A. 表明两种有关某个特定历史时期的论证过程都是有问题的。

B. 提供了历史证据来削弱一个广泛认可的观点。

C. 为一个的修正主义历史学家的观点进行辩护,这个观点受到了传统主义者的批评。

D. 概述了对某个历史现象的两种对立的解释。

E. 平息了历史学中对某个具有争议的历史事件进行的争论。

2. The reference to “the earliest years of English settlement in North America” serves primarily to emphasize the point that

A. Calloway has exaggerated the ruthlessness and rapacity of White settlers in their relations with native Americans prior to the American Revolution.

B . Seizure of Native American lands by White settlers had increased dramatically throughout the time of British Colonial rule.

C. At one time White settlers had negotiated with Native American people as independent foreign states.

D. White settlers had no legitimate ground for claiming title to land they seized west of the Appalachian Mountains.

E. Aggression by White settlers against Native Americans during and after the American Revolution was not a new phenomenon.

白话版讲解:

第二题: 文中提到“最早的时候在美国的英国定居者”,目的是为了强调一个什么观点?

这道题的正确答案是E。 题干引用的在原文第四句。第四句话的意思是:当美国白人在独立战争期间及之后用一切手段去侵占印第安人的土地的时候,他们是在延续着最早的时候英国定居者在美国的做法。这说明美国白人对印第安人的土地进行掠夺的这种行为,早期的英国殖民者早就做过了。

A. Calloway 夸大了美国白人在独立战争之前,对印第安人的的无情和贪婪。

B. 白人定居者对印第安人的土地进行侵占的行为在英国殖民者的统治期间

C. 白 人定居者曾经把印第安人当做独立的国家和他们进行协商。

D. 白人定居者对于掠夺而来的、阿巴拉契亚山脉以西区域的土地并没有合法的所有权。(该选项和原文第二句的内容相反,原文第二句表明对于白人定居者的行为,新政府是支持的。这说明他们对这些掠夺而来的土地是有合法的所有权的。)

E. 白人定居者在独立战争期间和之后对印第安人的侵占行为并不是什么新鲜事。

3. It can be inferred that both Bailyn and Calloway would probably agree with which of the following assertions regarding the relations between White Americans and Native Americans concerning the trans-Appalachian west

A. The American Revolution unleashed an unprecedented wave of expropriation of Native American land by White settlers.

B. The British government’s prewar policy towards the Native Americans was determined largely by the interests of British merchants who traded with the Native Americans.

C. The British government tried to keep White settlers out of the trans-Appalachian west primarily in order to prevent disputes over land between those settlers and Native Americans.

D. The new national colonial government to negotiate with Native American peoples as independent foreign states.

E. One objective of the British government’s land policy prior to the American revolution was to prevent White settlers from moving to the western side of the Appalachian Mountains.

白话版讲解:

第三题: 根据文章内容可以推断出,就美国白人和印第安人在跨阿巴拉契亚区域的西部地带问题上的关系,Bailyn 和 Calloway 可能都同意以下哪个说法?

这道题应该选 E。

A. 美国独立革命释放了一拨前所未有的、美国白人对印第安人的土地进行的征收潮。(这是 Calloway 的观点,对应原文第二句的内容。)

B. 英国政府在独立战争之前对印第安人的政策很大程度是由和印第安人做生意的英国商人的利益决定的。(这是 Bailyn 的观点,对应原文最后一句话的内容。)

C. 英国政府曾试图让美国白人定居者远离跨阿巴拉契亚区域的西部地带,主要是为了防止他们和印第安人之间就土地问题发生冲突。(这是 Bailyn 的观点,对应原文最后一句话的内容。)

D. 新的殖民政府把印第安人当成是一个独立的国家和他们进行协商。(这一点在原文没有提及)

E. 在独立战争之前,英国政府实施的土地政策,其目标之一是阻止美国白人定居者往阿巴拉契亚山的西边行进。(原文第一句和最后一句都提到这一点。该选项的描述符合 Calloway 和 Bailyn 两人的观点。)

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