市面上流传的GRE阅读机经真题有三百多篇,同时又存在多种版本的答案和解析,有些疑难题目让考生不知道听谁的,还有些版本的解析像是用谷歌翻译把同题目和选项翻译了一下。TD GRE教研组认为,GRE阅读的解析,可以讲得再清楚一点。

GRE不光有技巧,不光有快速解题法,GRE更加考察大家的逻辑硬实力,文字理解实打实的深度。良好的GRE备考应当在课堂上向老师学习快速解题法,取同取反逻辑的同时,课下扎扎实实的读懂每一句话。读懂,是一切技巧使用的前提。皮之不存,毛将焉附?

有感于此,我们尝试用比较长的时间,原创一个解析,力求做到超详细,大白话,包你懂。之前为大家推送了Passage 1 – Passage 72的解析,今天继续为大家推出GRE阅读Passage 73(长阅读)解析,这篇阅读一共有3段,共4道题,TD版超详细「包你懂」系列对此篇文章进行了清楚地解析。

GRE阅读真题第73段

Jane Austen’ s relationship to Romanticism has long been a vexed one. Although her dates (1775-1817) place her squarely within the period, she traditionally has been studied apart from the male poets whose work defined British Romanticism for most of the twentieth century. In the past her novels were thought to follow an Augustan mode at odds with the Romantic ethos. Even with the advent of historicist and feminist criticism, which challenged many previous characterizations of Austen as detached from the major social, political and aesthetic currents of her time, she continued to be distinguished from her male contemporaries. Jerome McCann, for example, insists that Austen does not espouse the Romantic ideology. Anne Mellor declares that Austen, along with other “leading women intellectual and writers of the day” “did not”, participate in the Romantic “spirit of the age” but instead embraced an alternative ideology that Mellor labels “feminine Romanticism”.

To be sure, some critics throughout the years have argued for Austen’s affinities with one or more of the male Romantic poets. A special issue of the Wordsworth Circle (Autumn 1976) was devoted to exploring connections between Austen and her male contemporaries. Clifford Siskin in his historicist study of Romanticism argued that Austen does participate in the same major innovation, the naturalization of belief in a developing self, as that characterized in Wordsworth’s poetry and other key works from the period. Recently, three books have appeared (by Clara Tuite, William Galperin, and William Deresiewicz) that in various ways treat Austen as a Romantic writer and together signal a shift in the tendency to segregate the major novelist of the age from the major poets.

The present essay seeks to contribute to this goal of firmly integrating Austen within the Romantic movement and canon. It does so by pointing out affinities between Austen and a writer with whom she has not commonly been associated, John Keats. Most comparisons of Austen and the Romantic poets have focused on Wordsworth and Byron, whose works we know she read. Although Austen could not have read Keats’ s poems, which only began to appear in print during the last years of her life, and there is no evidence that Keats knew Austen’ s novels, a number of important similarities can be noted in these writers’ works that provide further evidence to link Austen with the Romantic movement, especially the period of second-generation Romanticism when all of her novels were published.

GRE阅读文章解析

第一段 第一句:

Jane Austen’ s relationship to Romanticism has long been a vexed one.

白话版讲解:

Jane Austen(的作品)和浪漫主义文学流派之间的关系一直以来都被人们反复争论不休。

第二句:

Although her dates (1775-1817) place her squarely within the period, she traditionally has been studied apart from the male poets whose work defined British Romanticism for most of the twentieth century.

白话版讲解:

尽管她在世的时候(1775-1817)恰好也是浪漫主义文学盛行的时候,但在过去,人们一直把她和一些男性诗人(这些诗人的作品定义了大部分 20 世纪时期的英国浪漫主义文学风格)分开来研究。

这句话表明,在传统观点看来,虽然 Jane Austen 生活的年代浪漫主义风格盛行,但其作品并不属于浪漫主义派。

(备注:浪漫主义是一欧洲艺术、文学及文化运动,开始于 1790 年工业革命的德意志邦联,盛于 1800 至 1850 年。)

第三句:

In the past her novels were thought to follow an Augustan mode at odds with the Romantic ethos.

白话版讲解:

在过去,人们认为她的小说属于“奥古斯都文学派”(奥古斯都文学是一种英国文学风格),而这种文学流派的风格和浪漫主义文学派的风格是不一致的。

第四句:

Even with the advent of historicist and feminist criticism, which challenged many previous characterizations of Austen as detached from the major social, political and aesthetic currents of her time, she continued to be distinguished from her male contemporaries.

白话版讲解:

即使是后来出现的历史主义者和女权主义批评的论调质疑了很多之前人们对 Jane Austen 的看法(以前观点认为 Austen 的小说并不符合当时的社会、政治以及审美主流),但人们依然认为 Jane Austen 和她同时代的男性作家是不一样的。

第五句:

Jerome McCann, for example, insists that Austen does not espouse the Romantic ideology.

白话版讲解:

比如,Jerome McCann 就坚持认为 Jane Austen 并不认可浪漫主义派的思想体系。

第六句:

Anne Mellor declares that Austen, along with other “leading women intellectual and writers of the day” “did not”, participate in the Romantic “spirit of the age” but instead embraced an alternative ideology that Mellor labels “feminine Romanticism”.

白话版讲解:

Anne Mellor 则认为,Austen “和其他杰出的女性知识分子以及女性作家”一样,都“没有”“当时那个年代的浪漫主义精神”,而是认可另外一种被 Mellor 称之为“女性浪漫主义”的思想体系。

这一段主要描述了传统观点对 Jane Austen 的写作风格的看法。总体来说,过去的学者认为 Jane Austen 的写作风格不属于浪漫主义流派。

第二段 第一句:

To be sure, some critics throughout the years have argued for Austen’s affinities with one or more of the male Romantic poets.

白话版讲解:

当然,多年以来,一些评论家一直在论证表明 Austen 和一位或者多位男性浪漫主义诗人之间有着相似之处。

第二句:

A special issue of the Wordsworth Circle (Autumn 1976) was devoted to exploring connections between Austen and her male contemporaries.

白话版讲解:

Wordsworth Circle 这份期刊杂志的一期特刊(1976 年的秋季刊)致力于探索 Austen 和她同时期的男性作家之间的联系。

第三句:

Clifford Siskin in his historicist study of Romanticism argued that Austen does participate in the same major innovation, the naturalization of belief in a developing self, as that characterized in Wordsworth’s poetry and other key works from the period.

白话版讲解:

Clifford Siskin 在其对浪漫主义流派进行的历史主义研究中提到,Austen 有做出过重大的创新(即自我发展的内化),这一点在 Wordsworth 的诗歌、以及同时代其它重要诗歌作品中都有所体现。

(备注:William Wordsworth 是英国浪漫主义诗人,与雪莱、拜伦齐名,也是湖畔诗人的代表。其代表作有与塞缪尔·泰勒·柯勒律治合著的《抒情歌谣集》(Lyrical Ballads)、长诗《序曲》(Prelude)、《漫游》。)

第四句:

Recently, three books have appeared (by Clara Tuite, William Galperin, and William Deresiewicz) that in various ways treat Austen as a Romantic writer and together signal a shift in the tendency to segregate the major novelist of the age from the major poets.

白话版讲解:

最近,有三本书(作者分别是 Clara Tuite,William Galperin,和 William Deresiewicz)都通过不同方式,把 Austen 划分到浪漫主义作家之列。并且这三本书释放了一个信号,那就是要改变过去把同时代的小说家和诗人区分开的做法。

这段话提出了新的观点,一些批评家进行了不同方式的研究,认为 Jane Austen 的小说是具备浪漫主义派的风格特点。

第三段 第一句:

The present essay seeks to contribute to this goal of firmly integrating Austen within the Romantic movement and canon.

白话版讲解:

本篇论文致力于将 Austen 的作品纳入到浪漫主义文学运动和浪漫主义文学著作之中。

第二句:

It does so by pointing out affinities between Austen and a writer with whom she has not commonly been associated, John Keats.

白话版讲解:

这篇论文指出了一位人们通常不会与之联系起来的作家(John Keats)和 Austen 两人之间的相似之处。

第三句:

Most comparisons of Austen and the Romantic poets have focused on Wordsworth and Byron, whose works we know she read.

白话版讲解:

大部分对 Austen 和浪漫主义诗人之间的比较,都集中于把 Austen 和 Wordsworth 以及 Byron 这两人进行比较。我们都知道 Austen 读过 Wordsworth 和 Byron 这两位诗人的作品。

第四句:

Although Austen could not have read Keats’ s poems, which only began to appear in print during the last years of her life, and there is no evidence that Keats knew Austen’ s novels, a number of important similarities can be noted in these writers’ works that provide further evidence to link Austen with the Romantic movement, especially the period of second-generation Romanticism when all of her novels were published.

白话版讲解:

尽管 Austen 不可能读过 Keats 的诗歌,因为 Keats 的诗歌是在 Austen 在世的最后几年才发表的,而且也没有证据表明 Keats 熟悉 Austen 的小说,但是我们还是可以发现两人的作品有很多重要的相似之处。这种相似之处进一步为我们提供了证据,表明 Austen 和浪漫主义运动之间是有联系的,尤其是在浪漫主义运动的第二个阶段。在这一时期,Austen 所有的小说都发表了。

这一段话继续支持了新的观点,通过新的研究方式(即比较了 Austen 和 John Keats 的相似之处),认为 Jane Austen 的小说具有浪漫主义派的特点。

GRE阅读题目解析

1. The primary purpose of the passage is to

A. reconcile two competing positions in an ongoing critical debate.

B. develop a counterargument against a recent interpretation of a writer’s work.

C. provide support for a new approach to a writer’s work.

D. illustrate the contradictions experienced by women writers during a certain period.

E. explain a writer’s detachment from the major intellectual currents of a period.

第一题:这篇文章的主旨大意是什么?

这道题的正确答案是 C。

文章描述了对 Jane Austen 小说评价的转变。过去人们认为 Jane Austen 的小说不属于浪漫主义派,但是现在,新的研究方式表明,Jane Austen 的小说具有浪漫主义派的一些特点。

A. 调和了一项正在进行的辩论中,两个相互矛盾的观点。

B. 对最近一个作家作品的解读内容进行了反驳。

C. 为评价一位作家的作品提供了新的思路。

D. 阐明了女性作家在某个时期所经历的不一致。

E. 解释了一位作家在某个时期里,和主流的知识分子的观点不一致。

2. The author of the passage describes Austen’s relationship to Romanticism as “vexed” mainly because

A. her novels do not follow the Augustan mode to the extent the poetry of her contemporaries did.

B. her views seem to be at odds with those of male writer whose works defined British Romanticism.

C. her novels were written during the Romantic period, yet she is not treated as a Romantic writer.

D. her novels are critical of the Romantic ideology, embracing instead an alternative ideology sometimes described as “feminine Romanticism”.

E. she achieved recognition for her novels, whereas the Romantic era is better known for its poetry.

白话版讲解:

第二题:文章作者提到 Austen 和浪漫主义派之间的关系一直以来都被人们反复争论不休,主要原因是什么?

这道题的正确答案是C。

这道题对应的是原文第二句的内容。原文第二句即是对第一句话的话的解释,虽然 Jane Austen 生活的年代恰好也是浪漫主义文学盛行的时候,但在过去,人们一直不认为她的写作风格是属于浪漫主义派的。

A. 因为 Austen 的小说并没有像她同时期的作家一样,那么大程度的沿用“奥古斯都文学派”的创作风格。

B. 因为 Austen 的观点和男性作家的观点不一致(这些男性作家定义了英国浪漫主义文学)。

C. 因为 Austen 的小说是在浪漫主义盛行的时候撰写的,但是人们却并不认为她是一个浪漫主义派的作家。

D. 因为她的小说批判了浪漫主义文学的思想体系,而支持另外一个“女性浪漫主义”的思想体系。

E. 因为她是在小说方面获得了人们的认可,而浪漫主义时期以诗歌闻名。

3. According to the passage, compared to critics trained in “historicist and feminist criticism” (highlighted) earlier critics of Austen were

A. more likely to represent her as isolated from the major intellectual currents of her period.

B. more likely to represent her as departing from Augustan modes of thought.

C. more likely to find connections between her novels and Romantic poetry.rt.

D. less likely to neglect the influence of Romantic ideology on her work.

E. less likely to notice affinities between Austen and her female counterparts.

白话版讲解:

第三题:根据文章内容,相对于那些在“历史主义学和女性主义批评”的研究领域的批评家来说,早期研究 Austen 作品的批评家怎么样?

这道题的正确答案是 A。

原文在第一段第四句话提到了“历史主义学和女性主义批评”的研究领域的批评家。这些人质疑了之前人们对 Jane Austen 的看法(以前观点认为 Austen 的小说并不符合当时的社会、政治以及审美主流)。尽管如此,人们依然认为 Jane Austen 和她同时代的男性作家是不一样的。也就是说,在传统观点看来,Jane Austen 的作品并不属于浪漫主义派,不属于当时的主流文化。

A. 传统观点更倾向于认为 Austen 远离了她那个年代里,主流知识分子的观点。

B. 传统观点更倾向于认为 Austen 远离了“奥古斯都文学派”的思潮。

C. 传统观点更有可能认为 Austen 小说和浪漫主义文学派的诗歌之间存在关联。

D.传统观点更不太可能会忽视浪漫主义派的思想体系对 Austen 的影响。

E. 传统观点更不太可能会注意到 Austen 和与她类似的其他女性之间的相似之处。

4. The author of the passage would be most likely to agree with which of the following statements about the concept of “feminine Romanticism” (highlighted)?

A. It bought about Austen’ s vexed relationship to Romanticism by implying that Austen embraced relatively few elements of the Romantic ideology.

B. It contributes to Austen’ s vexed relationship to Romanticism by keeping her separate from the male writers whose poetry is central to the period.

C. It ameliorates Austen’ s vexed relationship to Romanticism by emphasizing affinities between she and other leading women intellectuals of the day.

D. It ameliorates Austen’ s vexed relationship to Romanticism by capturing the notion of an alternative Romantic ideology that she espoused.

E. It resolves Austen’ s vexed relationship to Romanticism by demonstrating her affinity with Romantic ideology.

白话版讲解:

第四题:文章作者最有可能会同意以下哪个关于“女性浪漫主义”的说法?

这道题的正确答案是 B。

原文第一段第一句提到 Jane Austen(的作品)和浪漫主义文学流派之间的关系一直以来都被人们反复争论不休。因为尽管她在世的时候恰好也是浪漫主义文学盛行的时候,但在过去,人们一直把她和一些男性诗人(这些诗人的作品定义了大部分 20 世纪时期的英国浪漫主义文学风格)分开来研究。这一段最后几句话都是在阐述传统的这个看法。“女性浪漫主义”的说法是在第一段的最后一句提到的。这句话提到 Anne Mellor 的观点,认为 Austen “和其他杰出的女性知识分子以及女性作家”一样,都“没有”“当时那个年代的浪漫主义精神”,而是认可另外一种被 Mellor 称之为“女性浪漫主义”的思想体系。

A. 这个观点通过暗示 Austen 并不接受浪漫主义文学派的思想体系,引发了有关 Austen 和与浪漫主义文学派之间的关系的争论。

B. 这个观点把 Austen 和与她同时代的男作家(这些男作家的诗歌是当时哪个时代的重要的文学作品)区分开来,从而进一步表明了人们对于 Austen 和与浪漫主义文学派之间的关系一直以来都争论不休,没有定论。

C. 这个观点强调了 Austen 和当时其他杰出的女性知识分子之间的相似之处,从而使人们对于 Austen 和与浪漫主义文学派之间的关系的争论得到了缓和。

D. 这个观点抓住了 Austen 支持的另外一种浪漫主义思想体系,从而使人们对于 Austen 和与浪漫主义文学派之间的关系的争论得到了缓和。

E. 这个观点表明 Austen 和浪漫主义思想体系之间有相似之处,从而解决了人们对于 Austen 和与浪漫主义文学派之间的关系的争论。

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